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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

出手阔绰的美国公司正迫使英国同行提高从新入行者到顶级风云人物的薪资——尽管这并未阻止富尔德(Freshfields)的私募股权明星戴维希金斯(David Higgins)在圣诞节前夕跳槽到凯易律师事务所(Kirkland & Ellis)。精品专业律所通过提供更快、更专注的服务来吸引客户。

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全球化和世界的和平发展合作是一体的、不可分的。
Writing for a Comedy Series: Aziz Ansari and Alan Yang, “Master of None” (“Parents”)
6. Am I maintaining healthy relationships? Is there a relationship in your life that needs a little extra care and attention? Do you need to right a wrong with someone? Try to stay aware of how you’re treating the people in your life.

2015年,中国各大银行的盈利有所萎缩。在这一年里,中国银行业经历了央行的几轮降息,并在中国政府取消存款利率上限之后发现,轻松赚钱的时代结束了。
“但我让他在碰巧看了一眼报纸时,看到上面一篇文章提醒他吸烟会致癌。
"They are fairies. Can’t they do something else except falling in love?" another Douban user Amy said.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

惠州楼市进入推售集中期 6月入市房源将破万套

当然,劳动力市场的复苏一直是渐进的,并可能保持这种状况。就业增长速度就需要在目前基础上大大提高,才能让失业率真正大为改观。失业率虽然低于三年前的10%,现在仍然高达7.9%。[qh]
问:写轻小说和写动画剧本有什么不同吗?
中国机器人产业联盟理事长曲道奎称,尽管我国本国供应商在2016年将市场占有率扩至32.7%,去年这一趋势出现反转,其市场占有率降至26.8%。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

SETTING: Stonington is on Little Narragansett Bay in southeastern Connecticut, about an hour by car from Hartford and Providence, R.I., and three hours from New York City. Once a busy harbor with a long maritime history, the town remains home to a commercial fishing fleet, several historic districts of Colonial and Federal houses and a healthy sailing community. There’s a small public beach at the tip of town and another, much larger one in Watch Hill, R.I., about a 20-minute drive away. This Greek Revival house, with the requisite Ionic columns and a fan window in its pediment, is in the center of town.
十年前,斯蒂尔作为一名成功的投资顾问在世界电信展(ITU World)上发言。世界电信展是联合国主导的一项活动,重点是科技在政府中的应用。同一周,加州经历了史上第一次州长罢免选举。斯蒂尔不敢相信,在如此重要的选举中,会出现这种不合时宜的平台故障(三年前才刚刚发生了臭名昭著的佛罗里达州总统选举罢免),所以她决定凭一己之力来解决这个问题。到目前为止,共有169个国家使用了Everyone Counts的电子投票平台,包括波斯尼亚黑塞哥利亚和奥斯卡奖评审委员会。
第一种是把亚洲视作一个被证明为排斥快速发展的市场,在起飞之前需要重大结构和监管改变。第二种是看到突然出现上行惊喜的可能性。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Mr Hoogewerf said that Mr Wang delisted his group’s property arm from the Hong Kong stock exchange this year in the hope of realising a richer valuation for it on the Shanghai or Shenzhen bourse.
  • 全国35城市买房难度大比拼 最难的并非北上广
  • In dollar terms, imports plunged 18.8 per cent last month to $114.19, from a 7.6 per cent drop in January and versus an expected drop of 3.6 per cent.
  • 雷士照明法人变更:王冬雷“攻下”重庆 吴长江欲“围魏救赵”
  • “两会”释放宽松信号 北京楼市成交环比上涨一成
  • 穆里埃塔属于一个叫“五皇后”的黑帮,他们是加州淘金热的高潮期间,臭名昭著的土匪。虽然穆里埃塔的犯罪行为可能没有任何政治色彩,他还是随着来到加州投机的美国定居者,成了墨西哥抵抗的象征。对他而言,这可不是什么好事,而是促使政府悬赏他的人头,导致他被杀和斩首。幸运的是,班德拉斯的角色没有遭到同样的命运。
    据张晓光表示,怀旧部分将包括出自上海文华电影制作工作室的电影,该公司成立于1946年、引领了中国文艺电影的新时代,将会让观众“一睹中国的电影文化和历史”。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 住建部:将监管“野蛮生长”长租公寓, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

大众旅游时代下 民宿短租发展的N个方向

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

贷款融资难 上海上半年房地产投资成交总额同比腰斩

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • range
    詹妮弗·劳伦斯也凭借她在《奋斗的乔伊》中的表演喜获最佳女主角奖项。
  • 5. 杜克大学福库商学院
    乔布斯在苹果大会上作专题演讲后展示MacBook Air ,2008年,1月15日,旧金山
    Will the housing sector adjust easily to higher interest rates?
    谈到乌克兰,普京再次否认俄罗斯军队在东乌克兰境内活动。那里的亲俄罗斯分离主义运动正在与乌克兰政府军作战。但是他说,莫斯科从未否认有人在那里开展属于“军事领域”的行动。他还说,俄罗斯没有制裁乌克兰的计划,但不会让乌克兰享受优惠贸易待遇。
    The prince said authorities could recover as much as $100 billion in settlements.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 又一陶企被洗牌 恩平市正徳陶瓷全面停产
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 长租公寓开发商不赚钱一般人租不起

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

vt. 为 .
通用汽车现在已经对挥泪大促销上瘾,新首席执行长惠塔克里(Ed Whitacre)对此心知肚明。他将在2010年取消一些购买刺激措施,以放弃全美20%市场占有率目标的方式来谋求重获盈利能力。这番求索注定是前路艰难。
The data was released to encourage the adoption of stronger passwords. Mr Slain added:"As always, we hope that with more publicity about how risky it is to use weak passwords, more people will start taking simple steps to protect themselves by using stronger passwords and using different passwords for different websites."
工业部和信息技术部的数据显示,上月新能源汽车的产量为1.61万台,比去年同期大幅上涨了144%。全电动乘用车的产量达到7952台,是去年同期的三倍。政府数据显示,一月份生产的新能源汽车,97%都有资格享受税收优惠政策。
根据北京市统计局发布的一份报告显示,2015年北京市社会消费品零售总额突破万亿元,达到了10338亿元,同比增长7.3%。
Cousins's deal qualifies as a blockbuster, the Raptors made two strong moves to bolster their contender status, and the race for the West's last playoff spot got far more intriguing, among other storylines.
普华永道的校园和学校雇佣主管安德鲁?巴杰里(Andrew Bargery)表示,Teach First的毕业生出类拔萃:“他们已经在专业环境下工作过,拥有专业成熟度,并擅长交际。”

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 那些服装能引起共鸣,是因为身穿那些服装的剧中人物精致复杂,而不只是因为琼的织锦紧身连衣裙真的魅力四射,或者梅根的迷幻雪纺连衣裙让璞琪看起来很酷。
  • 业内人士揭秘家居建材行业坑人黑幕
  • Michael Smurfit Graduate Business School at University College Dublin showed the best overall progress, moving up 21 places to 48. Guanghua School of Management at Peking University returns to the ranking at 38, after missing last year due to a low response rate from participants.
    The movies were selected from more than 2,000 titles from 100 countries and will be screened in 30 cinemas and colleges around Beijing from April 8 to April 23, Zhang Xiaoguang, deputy head of China Film Archive, said last Thursday.
  • 长沙新政:专科以上学历首套房不受户籍和社保限制
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • To Rouslan Krechetnikov and Hans Mayer for studying the dynamics of liquid-sloshing, to learn what happens when a person walks while carrying a cup of coffee. I`ll give you a hint: it happens between step 7 and 10.
    Golden State equaled the 1957-58 Celtics as the only defending champions to win their initial 14 games. The Warriors are one of five teams in NBA history to begin 14-0, and will travel to Denver looking to keep it going Sunday.
  • Emissions have been falling gradually in recent years in most of the developed countries, in part because of economic weakness but also because of strengthening climate policies. Emissions in the 28-nation European Union fell 1.8 percent in 2013, despite increases in coal consumption in a few countries, including Germany and Poland. Emissions decreased sharply in Britain, Italy and Spain.
    当小李子上台领取奖杯时,制片人哈维韦恩斯坦兴奋地拍拍他的背,全场观众起立为他喝彩。
  • 《三生三世十里桃花》是唐七在2009年出版的一部网络小说。今年,这部作品被改编成电影、电视剧以及电脑游戏。
    该书作者马丁輠祹(Martin Ford)周二在纽约的颁奖典礼上获得了英国《金融时报》和麦肯锡(McKinsey & Company)颁发的3万英镑奖金。
  • 9. “The Big Short” Adam McKay plays it for comedy, but as he carpet-bombs the screen with laughs, he makes it clear that his take on the 2008 economic meltdown is a staggering American tragedy.
    2014年,演员蒂尔达·斯文顿(Tilda Swinton)在四部电影中戴着假牙:《零点定理》(The Zero Theorem)、《布达佩斯大饭店》、《唯爱永生》(Only Lovers Left Alive),以及奉俊昊导演的《雪国列车》(Snowpiercer)。在最后这部惊悚片中,斯文顿饰演残酷、狡猾的梅森部长(Minister Mason),她戴着一副大大的眼镜,有一口庞大、丑陋的牙齿。
    无论你是否认为Snapchat配得上Facebook开出的30亿美元报价,有一点确定无疑:所谓的“阅后即焚”(内容被接收数秒后自动消失)社交网络拥有广阔的市场应用空间。此外,与流行的看法相反,Snapchat传播的内容不仅仅是色情短信和限制级的自拍照片,尽管它也的确是传播这类信息的最佳平台。随着主流社交平台的内容变得越来越商品化,以Snapchat为代表的“阅后即焚”平台在某种程度上重新恢复了社交媒体本应具备的趣味性和自发性。就像现实生活中的互动交流一样——创意自由流动,一般不用担心一切事情都被记录下来留给子孙后代观瞻,传遍整个世界——SnapChat提供了一个真实的、未经过滤的交流渠道。孩子们真的很喜欢它。Facebook公司自己的首席财务官上个月已正式承认,青少年使用Facebook的次数正在下降.而据坊间传言,驻足于Snapchat的青少年数量正在呈爆炸式增长。
  • 9、另一地球
    报告还发现,在“智力资本和创新”及“技术成熟度”等指标方面排名较高的城市综合排名也很高,这很明确地表明,技术上先进的城市更有可能成为“机遇城市”。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 瑞银证券:2016年LED持续供过于求 陆厂赢面大 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

易观发布Q3移动房产服务报告 链家APP覆盖能力胜出

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

建材家居企业半年报“亮红灯”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

增强城市核心功能 聚焦关键重点领域——十一届市委四次全会侧记

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

家居电商扩张缘何如此艰辛?

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 尽管中国在设计制造能与波音737或空客A320媲美的大飞机上仍有很长的路要走,但发展趋势很显著。中国航空工业正走向一个崭新的发展阶段并不断迈向成熟。The first flight of the Comac C919. Credit: Comac
  • Dachis says: 2011 saw a huge bounce for Dominos in brand enthusiasm from their brand relaunch which 2012 just couldn’t match. It’s a shame they can’t redesign their recipes every year.
  • (受权发布)中共中央 国务院 印发《乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)》(3)

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 莱昂纳多凭借他在《荒野猎人》中的演出斩获最佳男演员奖项,打败了埃迪雷德梅尼等劲敌。埃迪凭借在《丹麦女孩》中的演出获得金球奖提名。坊间盛传小李子有望在今年夺得他人生中第一座奥斯卡奖杯。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • But Michael DeFranco, chair of Baker & McKenzie’s M&A practice, hailed the Chinese group’s investment in developed economies.
    单词succumb 联想记忆:
    Harvey C Mansfield, one of Harvard's most outspoken conservative professors and the author of a book called Manliness, also told the Guardian he questioned the decision. "The bounds of what is offensive have been extended and distorted, and I no longer trust the bent judgment of politically correct enforcers."
  • ?Bond is by no means a comedian but he knows the power of a well-timed one liner. Women are attracted to funny men because humor is a sign of intelligence. You can even predict how many women a man has slept with by how funny he is.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 创始人的心态将为公司定下基调。消极、懒惰和理所应当的心态,不仅浪费时间和金钱,还会损害你的信誉。成功很大程度上取决于能否在犯错后从容地接受批评。直面挑战可以让一位普通的公司老板变成真正的领导者。
  • 中国超15万个村已完成集体产权改革 累计分红3251亿
  • 不会。当然,这种情况可能发生,但是只要运气不是太差,梅眼下至少可以确保英国经济不会在2019年因掉落“无协议”悬崖而急剧下滑。2017年12月,“共识预测”(Consensus Forecasts)预测2018年英国将增长1.5%。该机构对日本和意大利的预测值更低,为1.3%。因此英国明年成为G7中经济增长最慢国家的几率应该在四分之一左右。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 房租暴涨的真相:资本驱动助推 主因是供给减少
  • Household substance abuse
  • 年初需求遭透支 房企新年压力骤增
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

双线差异明显 门窗企业各渠道面临“淘汰赛”

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 河北环保厅:加快推进钢铁行业排污许可证核发工作
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 杭州:上半年宅地出让未达全年计划四成
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

继在电影《007:大破天幕杀机》中,和丹尼尔·克雷格(Daniel Craig)演对手戏,饰演神秘的塞芙琳(Severine)一角后,这名法国女星第二次挑战以英语为主要语言的角色。虽然电影《007:大破天幕杀机》在北美洲的公映时间是11月9号,但它已经在国际范围内开始向票房纪录发起进攻。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Video of the year: "Tornado," Little Big Town
这是悬在全球经济头顶的最大问题,也是最大风险。
9.Yeah, I was a badass on my high school football team! – Because I want to be seen by others in an even stronger light than I see myself。
6.I Love You Phillip Morris
乔布斯在苹果博览会上手持iPhone ,2007年,1月9日,旧金山
3. 丹·韦斯(Dan Weiss),《14》,Pi Recordings。《14》的内容如此丰富,整张专辑的作曲由鼓手丹·韦斯一手包办:细节丰富的室内乐,前卫的啸叫,新音乐无词人声与北印度音乐。相比这个宏大的音乐参照系,更令人印象深刻的是,韦斯集结了12名同行乐手,把所有音乐元素融汇为流畅的整体。
皮耶里在大型消费类产品公司工作过多年,如Stride Rite和科迪斯(Keds)等。所以,这种夫妻店在推出新产品时所遇到的困难令皮耶里感到失望。她解释道:“越创新的产品,因为与主流和‘已知’相悖,因而越难销售。”因此,她在五年前成立了The Grommet,这个信息分享平台会将消费者与发明者的故事和产品联系起来。皮耶里的公司帮助发布的产品包括自制碳酸饮料机Sodastream和智能腕带Fitbit。她一直把惠普公司(HP)CEO梅格惠特曼作为自己的导师,并在哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)担任入驻企业家。
The new figures come as Mr Duterte fends off criticism at home and abroad over his anti-drugs campaign, which has seen 600,000 potential suspects voluntarily turn themselves in to authorities.
Movies in 2016 are going to be huge and there's going to be a lot of them. Some of the best movies coming in 2016 include,Batman vs Superman: Dawn of Justice, Captain America: Civil War, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, Finding Dory, Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, X-Men: Apocalypse, Independence Day: Resurgence, WarCraft and Suicide Squad.
Hidrate Spark 2会通过移动App跟踪你的水摄入量和记录你一天喝了多少盎司的水,还可以根据在有盎司数标识的水瓶里灌了几次水来跟踪你的饮水量。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

2月新增人民币信贷或回落 个人房贷增速下滑

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Five programmes feature in the pre-experience ranking for the first time. The highest new entrant is Lee Kong Chian School of Business at Singapore Management University. The school came second in terms of the international mobility of its graduates, and is the first school to feature in both pre-experience and post-experience rankings.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 具有荷兰和美国双重国籍的Frans de Waal和另一位美国科学家Jennifer Pokorny获得这一奖项,他们的研究确认黑猩猩可以通过辨认同类的屁股照片来认出不同的个体。
  • 北京租房市场降温:成交放缓 价格分化
  • When Tom Ravenscroft left Oxford university with a degree in econ-om-ics and management in 2007, he wanted to be a management consultant. He even had a job offer from Oliver Wyman, following an internship. “I had no career vision beyond going into business. It was a very hazy concept,” he says.
  • 房企业绩在7月出现回落
  • 5. Caterpillar

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 今年稳健货币政策的内涵没有变
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • His first coding effort resulted in an app that played audio snippets from speeches by his idol, Steve Jobs, whose unauthorized biography he'd recently devoured. 'It was rejected by Apple for every reason,' D'Aloisio says now, laughing. 'Copyrighted audio, poor functionality, too simple.' Another early design allowed users to touch a picture of wood, producing a knocking sound. A third transformed a smartphone screen into a treadmill for your fingers. That one earned about $120 in sales on its first day.
  • 继8月中旬贬值后,人民币在9月和10月有所上涨,但在11月再度走低,昨日人民币汇率收跌至三个月最疲弱水平,为1美元兑6.4082元人民币。“中国周边很多国家自10月份起经历了一些资本外流,中国也未能幸免,”深圳招商证券(China Merchants Securities)经济学家谢亚轩表示。“美元走强势必在一定程度上引发转投美元资产的行为。”

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

58同城“房东”骗走一万八 房屋信息审核遭质疑

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